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Galungan Day is celebrated every Budha Kliwon Dungulan. Galungan Day has a meaning "Pawedalan Jagat" or the earth's celebration. On this day the Hindus thank the God for the creation of the earth and its content. On this day the Hindus feel grateful for His blessings.
The Relation between Mayadenawa and Galungan Day
This King ruled the area of Makasar, Sumbawa, Bugis, Lombok, and Blambangan. Because of his great power, Mayadenawa became snobbish and cruel. In this period a priest with divine power, called Mpu Kulputih. Mayadenawa did not allow the Balinese to worship the God, and he destroyed all the temples.
Because of this the people of Bali became desperate, the plants were destroyed, plaque was everywhere. The people did not dare to fight back or argue the order of Mayadenawa because of his magical power.
Mpu Kulputih was so sad to see this condition. Then he meditated at Pura Besakih to ask for the God's guidance to handle the chaos of Bali society caused by the King's behavior. Then he got guidance from the God Mahadewa to go to Jambu Dwipa (India) and ask for help.
It is not clear about who was finally sent to India, and how was it until a platoon of troops from heaven came to attack Mayadenawa. It was said that the God Indra led the troops from heaven, with complete weapons to Bali. In that attack Citrasena and Citragada led the platoon in the right wing.
Therefore, he prepared his troop to face the attack from the troops of heaven. A war cannot be avoided, a dreadful war that caused many victims from the both side.
But, because the troop of Bhatara indra was stronger, finally Mayadenawa's troops fled and left the King and his assistance, who is called Si Kala Wong. Good luck was with Mayadenawa and his assistance because the war had to be stopped, because the night has come.
That place later is called Tampak Siring. The next day the troop from heaven woke up from their sleep and drank the water that has been created by Mayadenawa. All of the members of the troops became sick.
Bhatara Indra found out about this, then he created another source of water called 'Tirta Empul'. Because of this source of water, the sick troops became well. The flow of the water from Tirta Empul became a river called Tukad Pakerisan.
Bhatara Indra and his troop chased Mayadenawa who had run away with his assistance. In his flight Mayadenawa transformed himself into 'manuk raya' (a big bird). This place later is known as Manukaya village.
Mayadenawa could not trick the powerful Bhatara Indra. Mayadenawa transformed himself several times into 'buah timbul', 'busung', 'susuh', 'bidadari' and finally turned himself into a stone called Si Kala Wong. Bhatara Indra shoots it with an arrow till he died.
His blood kept on flowing and became a river called Petanu. This river is cursed. If it used to water the rice field, the rice paddies would grow rapidly, but when harvested blood would came out of it and smell bad. This cursed will end in 1000 years.
The village where Mayadenawa transformed himself into 'timbul' fruit, later is known as Timbul village, the place where he transformed into 'busung' (young coconut leaf) is called Blusung village, the place where he transformed himself into susuh is called Penyusuhan village, and the place where he transformed into a fairy, later is called Kedewatan village (Ubud).
The death of the King Mayadenawa is the victory of the good (dharma) upon evil (adharma). This victory day is celebrated every six months (6x35 days=210 days), which is called Galungan Day. It is called Galungan, probably because it is celebrated on wuku Galungan (based on the Balinese calendar), and so does Kuningan Day that falls on wuku Kuningan.
The celebration of Galungan dan Kuningan is started on Tumpek Wariga or Tumpek Pengarah, the preparation for Galungan and Kuningan, until Budha Keliwon Pahang or also called as Budha Keliwon Pegat Wakan.
Description of Galungan and Kuningan Day
1. Wrespathi Wage Sungsang, is called Sugimanek Jawa, the day of the arrival of the Gods accompanied by the ancestors on earth. On this day Pengerebon offering and puspa wewangian (fragance flowers) are dedicated to the Gods and ancestors in the family shrine.
2. Sukra Keliwon Sungsang, is called Sugimanek Bali, a special day to purify ourselves. Purifying us from the influence of worldly things. On this day it is suggested to visit temples (matirtha yatra) for praying and learning more deeply about the holy teachings of the bible.
3. Saniscara Umanis Sungsang, is a preparation day for the next day. Preparing one to face the 'test' mentally and physically in peace, patience, alertness and devotion.
4. Panyekeban/Panapean, Redite Pahing Dungulan is a day when the Hindus started to do a meditation (yoga semadhi), because on this day Sang Kala Tiga Wisesa came as Bhuta Galungan, to tempt the human's mind. Starts from Redite, Soma, and Anggara Wuku Dungulan as the coming of Bhuta Galungan, Bhuta Dungulan, and Bhuta Amangkurat. On this day people is also start to make cakes and keep the materials for Galungan day such as tape (a kind of Balinese snack) to ripen.
5. Penampahan, Anggara Wage Dungulan, is a day when temptation comes from Bhuta Amangkurat. If we were not in alert and weak, it would succeed in tempting us. On this day Bhuta Yadnya is held in Catuspata, caru in the houseyard, segehan offering based on urip and direction, dedicated to Sang Bhuta Galungan.
6. Galungan, Budha Keliwon Dungulan is the day to have fun, the victory day after facing the 'test' mentally and physically from Sang Bhuta Galungan or the victory of the Good (Dharma) upon Evil (Adharma). On this day offerings are dedicated to the God and the ancestors who come down to earth.
7. Umanis Galungan, Wrespathi Umanis Galungan is the celebration day, and the Hindus can enjoy His blessings. The offerings are replaced with new ones and art performance is usually held and can be enjoyed by everyone.
8. Pahing Galungan, Sukra Pahing Dungulan, the day when we are still in alert with pure heart.
9. Pamaridan Guru, Saniscara Pon Dungulan, is the day when the God gives us prosperity. On this day, the Hindus usually visit the temples (tirthayatra).
10. Ulihan, Redithe Wage Kuningan, is the day when we commemorate the ancestors who has left us and continue their duty to fight for the truth (dharma)
11. Pamacekan Agung, Soma Keliwon Kuningan, is the day to pray for good will and the purity of the heart, because pemacekan day comes from the word 'pacek', which means the middle, i.e. the day between Galungan and Kuningan (5 days after Galungan and 5 days before Kuningan). The Philosophy is we are in the middle of the purity of the heart. On this day Segehan Agung offering is placed in front of the main gate.
12. Anggara Umanis Kuningan, is the preparation of Kuningan Day.
13. Pujawali Bhatara Wisnu, Budha Pahing Kuningan is the day when the protector of the world, God Wisnu comes to the earth. The Hindus on this day should pray for the maintenance of the universe.
14. Wrespathi Pon Kuningan, is a preparation day for Kuningan.
15. Penampahan Kuningan, Sukra Wage Kuningan is a day to prepare everything, especially the offering for Kuningan Day.
16. Tumpek Kuningan, Saniscara Keliwon Kuningan, is the day when the Gods accompanied by the ancestors come to visit the earth, but only until noon (12.00). On this day the Hindus are suggested to do self-introspection by doing a meditation for human's prosperity. The offerings on this day are selanggi, tebog, endongan, that decorates the house. Segehan Agung is placed on the house yard, and offerings for the family members are also served such as prayascita lewih, sesayut segan kuning, iwak itik putih, and penyeneng.
17. Pegat Wakan, Budha Keliwon Pahang, is the end of meditation that has been done for 42 days (from Sugimanek Jawa until Budha Keliwon Pahang). On this day the Hindus are dedicating sesayut dirghayusa and penyeneng offerings to the Supreme God, Hyang Widhi Wasa.